Nicolás Maduro has been sworn in for a second term as Venezuela's president, despite international criticism that his re-election was illegitimate.
The May 2018 polls were marred by an opposition boycott and vote-rigging claims.
The US, EU, and 13 countries in the Americas said last week that they would not recognise Maduro's presidency.
The socialist leader, 56, has dismissed talk of foul play, saying opponents "must leave us alone to govern".
Thousands of spectators gathered for the ceremony in Caracas.
Security forces blocked off several areas of the capital and other cities, and opposition groups called for pot-banging and the sounding of horns in protest during the ceremony.
The inauguration took place before the country's Supreme Court instead of its opposition-run Congress, which has been stripped of its powers since Mr Maduro's ruling Socialist Party lost control of it 2016.
"I assume with greater responsibility and commitment the new presidential term of 2019-2025. We will win!"
Maduro tweeted shortly before the ceremony.